News from EOM

Air quality affects the lifespan of individuals

People in China are dying three years early because of airborne particulates, which are also impacting the health of people around the world 

(see lost years in: 2017, Nature Vol. 551, 291-293)

Atmospheric chemistry affects the lifespan of air pollutants. Linking these effects is far from straightforward, for several reasons. The outdoor air pollution has many sources. Residential heating and cooking, especially using fuel stoves and fires in low-income countries, have the greatest impact on mortality. These explain roughly 1.35 million deaths per year. Agriculture has the next biggest impact, contributing to one-fifth of deaths— largely through ammonia released by manure and fertilizer use, which combines with sulfate and nitrate in the air to form ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate and thus PM2.5. Power generation, industry and traffic also contribute to ozone and PM2.5. Pollutants interact with one another also emissions can be blown in from other continents

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28702627?dopt=Abstract

Transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport. 

Zhang et al (Nature, 2017)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28358094

Why do asthma patients suffer at the beginning of each New Year?

Besides waste gas emissions from industry and vehicles the ignition of fireworks can contribute to air pollution. Massive letting-off of fireworks within a short period of time on the New Years results in an extreme pollution event. Airborne aerosols such as sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, particulate organic matter, black carbon, and other chemicals (i.e. heavy metals) are known to be associated with premature death, aggravated asthma, increased hospital admissions, increased respiratory problems, and coronary heart disease. 

Unfortunately, there is no study showing air pollution caused by New Year's Eve fireworks on global scale. We suggest such a study with short term (controlled) exposures across the globe (including with various climate zones). Such data can be extrapolated and used for other similar (less controlled) exposure scenarios.

HAPPY NEW YEAR to EOM members, supporters and readers

AHS: No association between glyphosate and NHL, but an increased risk of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

Glyphosate Use and Cancer Incidence in the Agricultural Health Study.

Andreotti et al., Nov 2017

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a ongoing  prospective cohort of licensed pesticide applicators enrolled in Iowa or North Carolina, Note that the authors do not provide data on exposure (no human biomonitoring no ambient monitoring data is collected within the study). The pesticide use data is based on a follow-up questionnaire that was administered five years after enrollment and completed by 63% of the participants.

In the recent data update the authors could not observe associations between glyphosate use and overall cancer risk or total lymphohematopoietic cancers, including NHL and multiple myeloma. However, there was evidence of an increased risk of AML (acute myeloid leukemia) for applicators, particularly in the highest category of glyphosate exposure compared with never users of glyphosate. The authors  truncated cancer incidence follow-up in 2005 to be concurrent with the last exposure information. Based on 26 exposed cases, there was an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared with never users (RR = 2.44, 95% CI = 0.94 to 6.32, Ptrend = .11), though this association was not statistically significant.

Expeditious efforts to replicate these findings are warranted.

https://academic.oup.com/jnci/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jnci/djx233/4590280

Pollution with particular matter (PM) in all EU states

25 November, 2017

Atmospheric Chemistry

Istvan Lagzi and his colleagues have analyzed pollution data for all 27 EU member states and show that the major pollution source represent residential heating with 21.7% for PM 10 values and 28.6 for fine PM 2.5 particles. As expected is the traffic responsible for 15.9% PM10 pollution and 17.8 PM 2.5%. To note however that for the residual 62% (PM10) and 53% (PM2.5) the sources are the industrial processes, manufacturing, metal production, mineral products and 6.5% soil emissions.

http://elte.prompt.hu/sites/default/files/tananyagok/AtmosphericChemistry/ch02s03.html#d0e1556